Thursday, 1 July 2010

Thursday 1st July 10 Towards CarFree Cities IX Conference, day four

Another fairly gruelling day, getting up early to be at Priory St for 9am, then making notes in each presentation, then participating in the Bishopthorpe Road Street Party.

The first part of the day was centred around why we need to go carfree.

James Woodcock, The Health and Environmental Benefits of reducing Car Use: Low and Zero.

The health impact of two strategies which were modelled.

1)Low carbon cars such as hydrogen/biofuel (low carbon in tailpipe emissions only, not looking at the carbon from the making of the hydrogen, which is mostly from fossil gas, and the often very high carbon footprint of biofuels)

2)Active Travel such as walking and cycling

Looked at London, made a projection to 2030 but no basic modal change, just the type of car changing.

BUT also a big shift to more walking and cycling.

So, CO2 emissions modelled, hardly any reduction in emissions with first scenario and less with the active modes, a 60% reduction if both low carbon cars AND active travel.
The health benefits from low carbon cars are minimal, but MUCH larger with active travel.
The methodology was explained, how the morbidity (ill health) is factored in.
So the reduction in road traffic collisions AND better air quality adds to the gains in health. Physical activity gains... all sorts of conditions, diseases.

DELHI A different spread of modes, more motorcycling, walking.
The projections show an increase in cars even if low carbon ones.
There is more uncertainty about how much Delhi will grow, but car use is expected to increase significantly. Only the combination of low carbon cars and active travel will reduce Delhi's CO2 emissions. Health benefits larger as there is more ill health from collisions and pollution, and there is more ill health generally than in London.
So, the conclusions are that lower carbon driving AND active travel give the best benefits overall.

Interestingly, there is evidence that as the number of cars owned goes up, injuries for pedestrians increase, up to a certain level, and then as car ownership increases further still, the numbers of pedestrian injuries goes down, as the numbers of pedestrian goes down.
Is there safety in numbers for cyclists? Well, to some extent, especially if there are fewer cars because they have switched to cycling. As the number of cyclists increase, there would be a change in policy and infrastructure which will affect the numbers if cyclists injured and killed.

James also looked at the time spent travelling in different modes, also by age. The data from London showed that most people do a small amount of active travel, the median was 55 minutes per week.

However, it is more beneficial if certain age groups do the exercise.

We were shown a series of graphs showing the different levels of active travel in different scenarios, and the health effects of the different scenarios.

Getting rid of motorcyclists had a big reduction in injuries and deaths overall, so the current policy of encouraging more motorcycling in London is not a good one for public health.

The public health benefits of a big increase of active travel was significant. Freight movements were also factored into these scenarios. Legislation which reduces speeds helps health, but a reduction in congestion tends to increase speeds, which increases the deaths and injuries.

Different collisions have different outcomes, so bike-car, mostly injury to the cyclist, but bike-HGV, mostly deaths, so a reduction of freight in HGVs results in a reduction of cyclist deaths.

Michael Glotz-Richter 'The Real World Experience of Bremen in bringing together walking, cycling, public transport and the role of car sharing.
Bremen in the N of Germany, 500k pop full title is the 'Free Hanseatic City of Bremen'
Famous for trams, backbone of transport system.
Bike provision in streetspace, also cafes, art.
Data on travel mode 40% cars/motorbike, cycling 25, Walk 20 public t 14%
Congestion has reduced, as transport volume has reduced, increase in shared transport and cycling.
The car is not the number one status symbol, the iPhone is... allows you to get public transport info!
For older men, the car has reduced in importance, Michael thinks because of viagra!!!
Clean diesel buses introduced, so a huge reduction in emissions from that fleet.
Compressed Natural Gas vehicles being introduced in car fleets... no change in look of street, just air quality.
Trams popular as priority in junctions. Wheelchair etc friendly, good real time info, good announcements give people the feel that they are more in control, which is an important aspect of which mode is chosen.
Walking and cycling.. the ultimate zero emission transport. So, when renewing streets, good provision for cycle lanes.
Increasing cycling and walking helps the CO2 reduction. Walking is a feeder mode for public transport.
Compared shopping trolley with cars, a very clever device.
So, car sharing as alternative to car ownership... smart card, pay for usage
So, 5800 customers, 150 cars, 40 stations, replaced 1000 private cars, has saved 20million euros in infrastructure impacts, lower car mileage, and more use of public transport, walk, cycle
size of cars reduced.
Target to increase to 20k car sharers, as there are still a lot of people who don't know about it. Many people use the public transport every day but the car at weekends only, this car ownership could be replaced by shared car membership.
Tram has advert 'always the right vehicle', nice tee shirt
influenced Shanghai with their first car sharing in Sept after their EXPOpart of the CIVITAS initiative

I had a chat with Gillian Chefrad from CoYC about helping access aa certain school to get Bike It in there, and I'm hoping that I'll be able to help.

Car Free - Low Car, what's the difference? Steve Melia
3 different types of car free development around Europe (discussion, benefits of cf development)Defined, European Style carfree development traffic free residential area
Designed around other travel modes inc car clubs
Limited parking, separated from the housing, typical parking 1 per 5 dwellings
Vauban model
Stellplatzfrei free from parking spaces
Car free centres with residents
Vauban, Freiburg 2000 homes, 5000 population, built on a redeveloped military area, new tram line built into area
17500 euro fee for having a parking space
No street level parking allowed, although some infractions, but mainly self policing
Absolute priority for kids playing.
Colonge Stellwerk 60, limited access private development following a citizens referendum, and a competition for developers to 400 units including 70 houses, not finished yet, mostly owned not rented, motor vehicle free interior, public space, some private space for gardening.
Car parking costs 16000 euros.
Access exceptions for emergency vehicles, maintenance, disabled patients deliveries to edge, removal vans
No taxis allowed, no private car
Bike deliveries to centre

Amsterdam Westerpark GWL-terrein 600 flats on brownfield plus commercial use
50% social housing, 50% owner occupied (deals with the gentrification problem)
Parking ratio 1 vehicle per 5 homes, some peripheral parking, no access to centre

Hamburg Saarlandsrasse 111 flats, second phase 53 flats, 5kn from centre near public transport links

Hamburg Kornweg 10km from centre 64 flats and houses

Edinburgh Gorgie Slateford Green
80%+ social housing 120 units
eco architecture with reedbeds, solar etc, compact development, although space to play, kids not seen. It is also gated with a barrier, only service vehicles have access.
Car ownership in these areas low, use very low
Pedestrianised Centres such as Groningen
Lots of city centres are pedestrianised, but mostly because of retail.
So, Groningen: no through traffic, half pedestrianised, 16500 residents.
Initially centre divided into 4 segments, so access to all quarters but no through traffic
Lots of opposition from Chamber of Commerce, but politicians stood their ground, now Chamber of Commerce a big advocate, and lobbying for secure cycle parks
'sustainable bypass' here: an inner ring road which is cycle friendly and public transport friendly

Exeter UK, 120 new flats with 23 parking spaces in new shopping centre.
First phase of flats had no parking, wondered whether they would sell... prices were high, but people queued in the street overnight to be the first to buy these flats in March 2007

Cycle/pedestrian can work if well designed and thought out. If not, there can be some degree of annoyance and conflict. It usually means that cycles go more slowly.

People moving to carfree areas often choose it because they are carfree already, but others become carfree after moving.
Carfree living is low carbon living if there are other services such as local shops etc
Residents of carfree areas and C footprints compared with a very similar area which was not carfree: was there a rebound effect? No there wasn't: ie money saved on car was not spent on more flights. Tend to shop more locally Embedded carbon high in most developments - concrete and steel..

Spring Hill in Stroud CoHousing, shared space within the building as well as private space
Lancaster, another eco-architect-built development
A comment about the embodied energy in many of these developments, such as 70 tonnes of CO2 emitted per BedZED home, is a huge use of carbon to enable a low use year on year. So, over a time frame of 100 years, this is low carbon, but we don't have 100 years to be low carbon, we should be rapidly going low carbon within 20 years, and cannot really afford, in carbon terms, to invest 70t/c in each low carbon home.

Issues of deliveries in carfree areas

Benefits of Carfree development:
reduces traffic particularly in dense urban areas, more efficient land use, better urban environment esp kids direct benefits and indirect benefits, local environment and global environment indirectly: includes environment, quality of life, health
Carfree developments can happen where public transport is good enough, where services are available, and where parking can be controlled in local surrounding area, potential demand... do people WANT to live there carfree?
WHO...carfree choosers, carfree possibles
'CarFree Housing' a UK concept, not used in other areas, applies to any housing with no parking available. Does reduce car ownership but has few other benefits.

Louvain la Neuve, Belgium new town built around a University Campus following conflict between Flemish speaking and French Speaking students: bike/pedestrian routes put in first, no attempt to go car free, but it has affected the chosen modes of transport. External travel is pretty typical, but internal travel is different, as mostly walking and cycling, known as the Pedestrian Town

Social Marketing Workshop for Cycling, Geoff Gardner - Atkins,transport policy but also builds bridges and ports etc
Marketing is not advertising

Planning is more important than creativity
Social marketing... team effort, partners, needs an exchange
bottom up, shared understanding allows all to arrive at the solution so, key issues are what is the product being sold
Workshop, identify 3 groups you could target to increase cycling
should be easy to identify and likely to respond differently to other group capable of quantitative measurement of change
Those who can cycle but haven't in past few years, requires asking the question
Those who drive a short way to work, through the workplace
Biggest gainers 'What's in it for me?' Time saving, more reliable,
Schoolchildren start young, get in the habit
Senior people in companies

Was Jamie's School Dinners an example of good marketing?
Did it involve all partners in the beginning?
Fruit before cakes sells more fruit, opt out donor cards 'Nudge' book Thaler and Sunstein
Goals always include
Behaviour change,
Knowledge objectives, belief objectives, behaviour objective
Promotion, the marketing
Communications mix advertising personal selling direct marketing find out what the customer wants
And finally, a quote from Dave Holladay:
'plagiarise plagiarise, let no-one else's work evade your eyes, but be sure to call it research!'

I then came home and at 5.45 pm left again to go to Bishopthorpe Road for the Street Party.
I listened into the stewarding instructions and was given a radio, and then when the road was opened to people at 6.30, I did the entire 3 hours as a balloon modeller. A really good, well attended party.

Back at 10.30, tired and did my blog. These are more in note form so far, might make them more readable... but again, now after 2am....

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